Barcelona - In randomized clinical study in the Annals of Internal Medicine (2014; 160: 1-10), Mediterranean diet prevented new cases of type 2 diabetes, although no restrictions on the amount of calories were imposed on the participants and they did not have to do any sport.
The “Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea” or PERIMED study is one of the few intervention studies on the effects of diets on health. The study involved nearly 7,500 men (55 to 80 years old) and women (60 to 80 years old) who were at increased cardiovascular risk because they either had type 2 diabetes or increased three other risk factors such as smoking and hypertension Had cholesterol or overweight / obesity or had positive family history of early cardiovascular events.
: The rate of severe cardiovascular events Events could be significantly reduced by 30 percent (NEJM 2013; 368: 1279-1290). Now Jordi Salas-Salvadó from the University of Barcelona and colleagues are presenting further results on planned secondary endpoint: the number of new cases of type 2 diabetes in the 3,541 participants who were not yet diabetic at the start of the study.< As in the main study, the traditional Mediterranean diet, which was combined with olive oil (1 bottle per week) in the first study arm and with nuts (30 grams daily) in the second study arm, had preventive effect. In the olive oil arm, there were 40 percent fewer new cases during the four-year study period (hazard ratio HR 0.60; 95 percent confidence interval 0.43-0.85) than in the control group. With the diet enriched with nuts, the participants fell ill 18 percent less often (HR 0.82; 0.61-1.10) than in the control group, so the difference was not significant here.
The results are particularly noteworthy because weight loss and exercise are the most important pillars of disease prevention from diabetological point of view. No guidelines were given to the participants in the study. The olive oil also increased fat intake compared to the control group, who were supposed to follow low-fat diet. Diabetologists also advise against this.